Jane and John Doe, et al. v. Aberdeen School District, et al., No. 18-cv-00125 (N.D. S.D.) September 17, 2019.
The First Amendment requires that judicial proceedings be open to the public, the Rules of Federal Procedure require identification of the parties before the court. Nonetheless, courts may permit pseudonymous proceedings where the totality of the circumstances indicate there is a substantial privacy right that permits limitations of access rights. Courts may consider whether the government is being challenged, whether intimate facts are involved in the case, whether criminal prosecution may ensue, and, in the Sixth Circuit, whether minor children are plaintiffs. As the facts in the case are both intimate and involve children, the court will permit pseudonymous proceedings.